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Role of Women in Society

Английский язык-->Топики по английскому языку

Роль женщин в обществе
The ongoing changes in social, political and economic spheres of the country entails not only the raise of women’s role in society, in addition they are accompanied by breaking of stereotypes to treat human beings by sex that had been shaping through decades. Free economic relations and democratization of all spheres of life create the basis for eventual equal social rights for any human being regardless of sex, for both men and women.


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Теория регулярных соответствий Теория регулярных соответствий

Перевод-->Статьи
Одна из первых попыток создания полноценной теории перевода была предпринята в трудах русских ученых А.В. Федорова и Я.И. Рец-кера. Они разработали лингвистическую теорию перевода, получив­шую название теории регулярных соответствий. Полного осознания перевода как междисциплинарного явления еще не было, и внимание исследователей вполне обоснованно было сосредоточено на его языко­вом аспекте.

Значение этой теории трудно переоценить. Ее авторы были пионе­рами, одними из первых среди тех, кто дал четкое определение перево­дческих процессов. Они нащупали два узловых понятия в переводе - переводческие соответствия и переводческие преобразования.

Важнейшим достижением созданной ими теории является опреде­ление механизмов перевода, основанных на взаимоотношениях между логическими понятиями. Это трансформации генерализации и конкре­тизации наряду с метонимическим и антонимическим видами перевода.

Положения теории регулярных соответствий легли в основу боль­шого количества учебников и учебных пособий, на которых воспиты­валось не одно поколение переводчиков.

Теория регулярных соответствий была началом огромной работы, и в ней, естественно, были свои недочеты. Основным среди них было от­сутствие четкой грани между языком как набором формальных средств и речью, понимаемой как использование формальных языковых средств для целей общения. В качестве соответствия - основы для со­поставления двух языков - использовались языковые единицы, слова и грамматические конструкции. Об этом свидетельствуют названия разделов в учебных пособиях, озаглавленные "Перевод прилагатель­ных", "Перевод артикля" и т.п.

В каждом языке существует своя, присущая только ему система формальных отношений, поэтому выбор формальных единиц в качест­ве переводческого соответствия является в принципе неверным.

Вместе с тем нужно подчеркнуть, что в своем последующем разви­тии теоретическая мысль не отвергла теорию регулярных соответствий. Впитав ее достижения, она пошла по пути преодоления присущих ей недостатков.

Е.В. Бреус. "Теория и практика перевода с английского на русский"


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