Отвлекаясь от абстрактных моделей перевода, отметим, что процесс перевода — равно как и весь процесс порождения речи в сознании человека — по-прежнему остается загадкой загадок. Однако совершенно очевидно, что в практике перевода действительно выделяются два этапа работы. Один из них связан с осмыслением текста на иностранном языке, а другой — с воспроизведением его на родной язык.
English is a Germanic Language of the Indo-European Family. It is the second most spoken language in the world.
It is estimated that there are 300 million native speakers and 300 million who use English as a second language and a further 100 million use it as a foreign language. It is the language of science, aviation, computing, diplomacy, and tourism. It is listed as the official or co-official language of over 45 countries and is spoken extensively in other countries where it has no official status.
Half of all business deals are conducted in English. Two thirds of all scientific papers are written in English. Over 70% of all post / mail is written and addressed in English. Most international tourism and aviation is conducted in English.
The history of the language can be traced back to the arrival of three Germanic tribes to the British Isles during the 5th Century AD. Angles, Saxons and Jutes crossed the North Sea from what is the present day Denmark and northern Germany. The inhabitants of Britain previously spoke a Celtic language. This was quickly displaced. Most of the Celtic speakers were pushed into Wales, Cornwall and Scotland. One group migrated to the Brittany Coast of France where their descendants still speak the Celtic Language of Breton today. The Angles were named from Engle, their land of origin. Their language was called Englisc from which the word, English derives.
An Anglo-Saxon inscription dated between 450 and 480AD is the oldest sample of the English language.
During the next few centuries four dialects of English developed:
Northumbrian in Northumbria, north of the Humber
Mercian in the Kingdom of Mercia
West Saxon in the Kingdom of Wessex
Kentish in Kent
During the 7th and 8th Centuries, Northumbria's culture and language dominated Britain. The Viking invasions of the 9th Century brought this domination to an end (along with the destruction of Mercia). Only Wessex remained as an independent kingdom. By the 10th Century, the West Saxon dialect became the official language of Britain. Written Old English is mainly known from this period. It was written in an alphabet called Runic, derived from the Scandinavian languages. The Latin Alphabet was brought over from Ireland by Christian missionaries. This has remained the writing system of English.
At this time, the vocabulary of Old English consisted of an Anglo Saxon base with borrowed words from the Scandinavian languages (Danish and Norse) and Latin. Latin gave English words like street, kitchen, kettle, cup, cheese, wine, angel, bishop, martyr, candle. The Vikings added many Norse words: sky, egg, cake, skin, leg, window (wind eye), husband, fellow, skill, anger, flat, odd, ugly, get, give, take, raise, call, die, they, their, them. Celtic words also survived mainly in place and river names (Devon, Dover, Kent, Trent, Severn, Avon, Thames).
In 1066 the Normans conquered Britain. French became the language of the Norman aristocracy and added more vocabulary to English.
Because the English underclass cooked for the Norman upper class, the words for most domestic animals are English (ox, cow, calf, sheep, swine, deer) while the words for the meats derived from them are French (beef, veal, mutton, pork, bacon, venison).
The Germanic form of plurals (house, housen; shoe, shoen) was eventually displaced by the French method of making plurals: adding an s (house, houses; shoe, shoes). Only a few words have retained their Germanic plurals: men, oxen, feet, teeth, children.
French also affected spelling so that the cw sound came to be written as qu (eg. cween became queen).
It wasn't till the 14th Century that English became dominant in Britain again. In 1399, King Henry IV became the first king of England since the Norman Conquest whose mother tongue was English. By the end of the 14th Century, the dialect of London had emerged as the standard dialect of what we now call Middle English. Chaucer wrote in this language.
Modern English began around the 16th Century and, like all languages, is still changing. One change occurred when the th of some verb forms became s (loveth, loves: hath, has). Auxillary verbs also changed (he is risen, he has risen).
The historical influence of language in the British Isles can best be seen in place names and their derivations.
Examples include ac (as in Acton, Oakwood) which is Anglo-Saxon for oak; by (as in Whitby) is Old Norse for farm or village; pwll (as in Liverpool) is Welsh for anchorage; baile (as in Balmoral) is Gaelic for farm or village; ceaster (as in Lancaster) is Latin for fort.
Since the 16th Century, because of the contact that the British had with many peoples from around the world, and the Renaissance of Classical learning, many words have entered the language either directly or indirectly. New words were created at an increasing rate. Shakespare coined over 1600 words. This process has grown exponentially in the modern era.
Borrowed words include names of animals (giraffe, tiger, zebra), clothing (pyjama, turban, shawl), food (spinach, chocolate, orange), scientific and mathematical terms (algebra, geography, species), drinks (tea, coffee, cider), religious terms (Jesus, Islam, nirvana), sports (checkmate, golf, billiards), vehicles (chariot, car, coach), music and art (piano, theatre, easel), weapons (pistol, trigger, rifle), political and military terms (commando, admiral, parliament), and astronomical names (Saturn, Leo, Uranus).
Languages that have contributed words to English include Latin, Greek, French, German, Arabic, Hindi (from India), Italian, Malay, Dutch, Farsi (from Iran and Afganistan), Nahuatl (the Aztec language), Sanskrit (from ancient India), Portuguese, Spanish, Tupi (from South America) and Ewe (from Africa).
The list of borrowed words is enormous. The vocabulary of English is the largest of any language.
Even with all these borrowings the heart of the language remains the Anglo-Saxon of Old English. Only about 5000 or so words from this period have remained unchanged but they include the basic building blocks of the language: household words, parts of the body, common animals, natural elements, most pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions and auxiliary verbs. Grafted onto this basic stock was a wealth of contributions to produce, what many people believe, is the richest of the world's languages
We all know adidas is winning, but when it comes to numbers, how much does “winning” equate to? The latest news reports that adidas sales has increased by 18.9% ($6.04 billion USD) in the first quarter of 2017. In return, this also means that the operating profit Adidas Eqt Support Ultra has also risen by 28.8% to $637.3 million USD.It is also being reported that this was driven by increased sale in every part of the world, with the exception of Russia. The two countries Adidas Eqt Support Boost with the biggest increases was North America (31%)and China (30%).adidas’ chief executive officer, Kasper Rorsted, also pointed out that that growth they’ve experienced was thanks in large part to “consumer demand for our products Adidas Yeezy Boost 350 V2 was strong across the world.”2016 was a record-breaking year for adidas. If they keep going down the same path this year, 2017 will also be a “new” record breaking year and could also very Adidas Eqt Boost well be the first year that adidas profits break the $1 billion USD mark. Winning.According to NPD’s Sports Industry Analyst Matt Powell, the five shoes that the spearheaded the first quarter growth of 2017 Adidas Ultra Boost 3.0 was the adidas Originals Superstar, the adidas NMD, the adidas Tubular Shadow, the adidas Alpha Bounce and the adidas Originals Stan Smith. How many of you own any of the pairs listed above? adidas http://www.adidasoriginals-nmd.com has linked up with the Horween Leather company once again to give us a new premium pair of Stan Smiths. This is not the first time that the Stan Smith has been covered in NMD R1 Horween Leather as we’ve seen this in the past.This time around the iconic silhouette from adidas comes covered in a shiny blue Horween Leather all throughout the upper with debossed Stan Smith/adidas branding on Adidas NMD the side panels, heel tab, and tongue. Other details include perforated three stripes branding on the side panels, a suede heel tab, white laces, and a white rubber sole. Look for this adidas Stan Eqt Adidas Smith Horween Leather in blue at select adidas retailers in the near future. A new adidas Ultra Boost Uncaged colorway that managed to fly under the radar is this brand new White and Navy Adidas Eqt colorway you see above. Available for purchase now, let’s get a closer look.The adidas Ultra Boost Uncaged comes dressed in a full Primeknit upper done in a White and Navy color scheme. Also coming NMD Adidas in the same fashion and are the two-toned laces. he sock collar comes in White, and so does the heel counter and Boost midsole/rubber ousole. A very clean and simple look for the Summer, Yeezys for Kids pick up a pair of these from select retailers today for the retail price of $180. adidas Originals is set to release another version of the adidas Ultra Boost Uncaged “Triple White” colorway for Yeezy Boost 350 V2 Beluga Summer 2017.This adidas Ultra Boost Uncaged Triple White 2.0 version comes constructed with an extended sock-like collar and matte-styled heel counter. A full-length White Boost midsole, Silver branding and rubber outsole finishes off the Bape x Adidas NMD R1 clean look.Look for the adidas Ultra Boost Uncaged “Triple White 2.0” to release this June 2017 at select adidas Originals retailers and adidas.com. The retail price tag is set at $180 USD. While we Yeezy Boost 350 Oxford Tan wait for the adidas Ultra Boost Chocolate to officially debut. It now appears that there’s another flavored pair in the works as we take a look at the adidas Ultra Boost 3.0 Chocolate colorway.Perfect Adidas NMD primekint for sweet-toothed Three Stripes fans, this adidas Ultra Boost is believed to be a sample version that comes dressed in a luxurious “Chocolate” color scheme.Featuring a Brown Primeknit upper, with a matching leather cage Adidas Ultra Boost and heel counter, atop a full-length White Boost midsole and Black rubber outsole.As of right now, there’s no word on an adidas Ultra Boost 3.0 Chocolate release date, but we’ll keep you updated with Adidas Yeezy Boost 350 the latest as it develops.Are you guys feeling this “Chocolate” Ultra Boost? adidas Originals continues to unveil new adidas Iniki Runner Boost colorways for the month of April, and today we take a look Yeezy Boost 350 Pirate Black at two more pairs that drop on April 20th.Retaining the shoe’s original material way, the new iterations feature a stretch-mesh upper with concealed sock-fit lining, structured with vintage suede overlays and tumbled leather serrated Adidas Eqt Adv Three Stripes marks. Placed atop a Boost midsole with rubber outsole, the result is a striking blend of classic design and contemporary tech. Offered in Clear Onyx and Solar Yellow for women and White and Pearl Grey for men, the Triple White Ultra Boost release culminates as two of the Iniki Runner’s boldest editions yet.Look for these two adidas Iniki Runner Boost releases to become available on April 20th at select adidas Originals retailers and adidas.com. The adidas Superstar Boost is the newest version of the classic silhouette that has debuted in its original Black and White color scheme.This brand new NMD Adidas fresh version of the adidas Superstar features a premium Black leather upper with its iconic rubber shel toe and Three Stripes on the sides in White. Gold foil accents on the tongue label, all Yeezy Boost 350 V2 Kids atop a Boost rubber sole finishes off the shoe.You can now find the adidas Superstar Boost OG in Black and White available now at select adidas Originals retailers like Sneaker Politics. The retail price Yeezy Boost 350 V2 tag is set at $120 USD. adidas Originals debuted their limited adidas 3D Runner in a “Triple Black” colorway back in December 2016 at their adidas NYC flagship store on 5th Ave retailed for Yeezy Boost 350 Kids $333 USD.Today, we get a look at a brand new take on the adidas 3D Runner, which comes equipped with a redesigned midsole – different from the original. Its upper that’s done in Black NMD City Sock has the same style look as the beloved adidas Ultra Boost runner.Take a look below and let us know what you guys think of this adidas 3D Runner in the comments section. A release Adidas NMD for Sale date is unknown, as this pair is said to be a 1-of-1 from Asia. adidas Originals will release another adidas Yeezy Boost 350 V2 Infant this weekend. Dressed in Black and Red, they are Adidas Ultra Boost Uncaged set to release on February 11th.The infant edition of the adidas Yeezy Boost 350 V2 is much like the adult and comes dressed in a Core Black and Red color combination. Using predominate Black, Adidas Ultra Boost Black the uppers are constructed with Primeknit while SPLY-350 is done in Red while the same shade lands on the heel tab. Finishing the look is Black across the Boost encapsulated midsole. We’ve been seeing Yeezy Shoes a whole lot of the Pharrell x adidas Tennis Hu over the past week or so, and today we add two more colorways to the list. What you see above is the Pharrell x NMD adidas Tennis Hu in all-Red and all-Navy.The Pharrell x adidas Tennis Hu is Pharrell’s newest collaborative effort with adidas that is on the verge of releasing. These new colorways mark the first time the Adidas NMD shoe opts for a tonal upper that’s not done in all-White. Both offerings (Red and Navy) comes constructed out of a mesh upper, while White detailing can be found on the tongue and heel. Ultra Boost Uncaged Below you will find a matching textured midsole that completes the monochromatic look and feel of the shoe. There’s no release date yet but we expect both options to release in the very near Yeezy Boost 350 future.
The opening of adidas’ latest flagship location on the corner of 5th Ave and 46th Street in nmd adidas New York City is days away from officially opening.Inspired by an iconic, high school stadium (more on this in due yeezy boost 350 pirate black time), this newest location offers 4 stories and over 45,000 square feet of space for our fans to experiment and NMD Human Race engage with #thefutureofsportIn anticipation of the store’s grand opening to the public on Thursday, December 1st, they’ll be celebrating some Adidas Yeezy Boost 750 exclusive releases.For the event, adidas will make its first-ever miadidas Ultra Boost available at the miadidas Customization Studio with NYC-specific yeezy boost 550 color options and details. In addition, the Parley for The Oceans x adidas Ultra Boost Uncaged will be available, and Adidas NMD an early release of the Harden Vol. 1 in the “Pioneer” colorway. But the biggest release is the “Triple Black” NMD Runner adidas Ultra Boost that will be available via adidas’ Confirmed App. Sign-up’s will begin today on November 28th. Reservations open Adidas Ultra Boost Uncaged on November 29th, with pick up to follow on opening day, Thursday, December 1st.There are a limited number of pairs Adidas Basketball Shoes that will be available for purchase on opening day, from 11AM to 8PM, while supplies last. Stay tuned to Sneaker Adidas Yeezy Shoes Bar for more details on other exclusive releases.Far from ending, the camo visual story lives on. This time Three Adidas Yeezy Boost 350 Stripes releases their latest adidas Tubular Invader Camo in an “Olive Cargo” colorway.This adidas Tubular features a camouflage pattern throughout yeezy boost 350 its suede upper for a stand-out appealing look. The mid-cut silhouette also includes an off-White sole with a Gum section Adidas Yeezy Boost 550 on the heel.Look for the adidas Tubular Invader “Camo” to release very soon at select adidas Originals retail stores, including Yeezy Boost 550 shops like Inflammable. adidas Originals is reconstructing the Stan Smith once again with the debut of the adidas Stan adidas yeezy boost 350 Smith Woven Pack.The pack consists of three different colorways that come in either Mystery Blue/Running White, Running White/Mystery Blue and Adidas Ultra Boost Running White/Green. All three pairs are full constructed with woven uppers that includes the iconic tongue tag sitting atop a Yeezy Shoes clean White rubber sole.Check out the adidas Stan Smith Woven Pack below and look for them to debut very soon yeezy shoes at select stateside adidas Originals retail stores.adidas and Kanye West are giving us a brand new Yeezy Boost V2 adidas nmd primekint with the release of the adidas Yeezy Boost 350 V2 Core White colorway.Featuring a Core Black Primeknit upper with Core nmd White accents and a White stripe that reads “SPLY 350” on the sides. A clean Black Boost midsole and outsole kanye west shoes finishes the design.Look for the adidas Yeezy Boost 350 V2 “Black/White” to release on tomorrow, December 17th, 2016 at select yeezy boost 750 retail stores. The retail price tag is set at $220 USD.They’ll be available online at adidas, Champs, Eastbay, Foot Locker, Adidas Outlet Footaction, along with other retailers like Solebox.You can also find them available now for the best price via eBay.All NMD Human Race three colorways of the Yeezy Boost 350 V2 are scheduled to release on Wednesday, November 23rd, 2016. Reservations through the Yeezy Boost 350 V2 adidas Confirmed App on opens Monday, November 21st, with sign-ups open right now.Each release features a Black Primeknit upper with Adidas Yeezy Boost 350 V2 a color striped overlay in Red, Copper and Green with SPLY-350 text. A Black rubber sole with Boost completes the Adidas Ultra Boost White look.Look for the three adidas Yeezy Boost 350 V2 releases debut on November 23rd through select adidas Originals retailers and yeezy boost 350 V2 online via adidas.com. The retail price tag is set at $220 USD.For the store list, click here.The adidas Basketball Adidas NMD For Sale XENO 2016 Collection will be lacing up the likes of Damian Lillard, Derrick Rose and others.This year’s XENO Collection includes NMD City Sock the adidas Crazy Explosive, adidas D Rose 7 and the adidas D Lillard 2. All three basketball silhouettes sport the NMD R2 reflective, color-shifting finishes from past season releases.Check out the adidas Basketball XENO 2016 Collection below and look for them to Adidas Yeezy Boost 350 V2 Beluga release on November 24th, 2016 at select adidas Hoops retail stores.adidas continues to drop great colorways of the Gazelle. NMD City Sock This time around, the trefoil brand brings us a “Green Suede” version of the classic silhouette.Featuring a premium suede upper, Adidas NMD XR1 it comes with contrasting Black Three Stripes on the side, Black laces and tongue. The Golden branding on the side Adidas Yeezy Boost 950 and the pristine White sole completes the look.Look for the adidas Gazelle “Green Suede” available now at select adidas Originals NMD Adidas retail stores, including shops like MATE.The adidas Tubular X Primeknit is back for the holiday season that’s releasing in adidas nmd three brand new colorways.These releases come dressed in Sesame, Grey and Black color options that are built with a Primeknit adidas yeezy constriction capped off with a White sole unit and a translucent heel.Check out the upcoming releases below and look for Yeezy Boost 350 V2 Beluga these adidas Tubular X Primeknit colorways to release this Thursday, December 8th through overseas locations like atmos. A stateside launch Adidas Shoes as yet to be announced.Continuing with the fall-inspired sneaker releases, adidas has also debuted their newest Matchcourt Mid ADV Adidas NMD R1 in a earthly “Mesa” colorway.This mid-top comes constructed with a suede upper with canvas detailing hitting the heel tab. White nmd R1 leather covers the side Three Stripes, midsole and toe bumper that sits atop a Gum rubber outsole.Check out the additional Adidas Ultra Boost images below and look for this adidas Matchcourt Mid ADV “Mesa” colorway available now through select adidas retail stores like Adidas Ultra Boost Uncaged Premier. The retail price tag is set at $75 USD.Palace Skateboards has teamed up with Yeezy Boost 350 adidas to release their latest collaboration that includes two adidas EQT colorways.The Palace Skateboards x adidas EQT Collection not only includes two runners, but it also comes with a full matching apparel that you can check out here.Look for the adidas nmd for sale Palace Skateboards x adidas EQT Collection to release on Friday, December 16th directly through their online shop.