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Модели процесса перевода

Перевод-->Статьи

В последние годы появилось немало описаний перевода как процесса. Все они гипотетического, предположительного характера, потому что постичь то, что происходит в сознании человека в момент преобразования содержания, выраженного в одной языковой форме, в то же содержание, материализованное в другой языковой форме, не представляется возможным на современном этапе развития наук.


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Страноведение-->Великобритания
The Men Who Run Britain The Men Who Run Britain

In Britain the result of the election usually becomes clear early on Friday morning, and by Friday afternoon the new Prime Minister is calling at the Palace and moving into Downing Street.

The fact that many Cabinet ministers now live 'above the shop' makes the transition more fierce, for overnight they lose not only their office but their house. The residence of the Chancellor of the Exchequer, at Number 11 Downing Street, has only one door, so that the change is visible to any passers-by: out of the door must come the old Chancellor, his family, trunks, packing cases and empty bottles. The abruptness has obvious advantages. There is no awkward hiatus, no period with no one properly in control . But behind this combination of continuity and change there is a heavy flywheel that keeps its momentum and survives any transition: the great machine of the permanent Civil Service. Before any election there are secret talks between top civil servants and the Opposition, in case they win: there were long talks before Wilson came to power in 1964, and more talks with Heath in the months before June 1970. The civil servants read up the pamphlets and the schemes for reforms, and make their 'contingency plans' - civil servants love their contingencies - against the day of change. But the talks and plans are kept secret until after the election; when the fact emerges that there have been talks, as it always does, the betrayal seems all the greater.

The transition in Britain is more poignant, too, because of the relative fewness of the politicians who move out and in. Only about a hundred men change their offices in Whitehall after the election.

In Britain even the minister's private secretary - his most intimate confidant -will stay to serve his new master, abandoning overnight the loyalties and policies of his predecessor.

The civil servants are very conscious of the nature of their bargain with the politicians. As one permanent secretary put it: "We say to them, in effect, that their dirty linen is safe with us. If we can't promise them that, then they'll take the dirty linen somewhere else".

The fact that the top civil servants know so much more than their political masters, and much that they must not disclose, adds a special piquancy to the relationship. The civil servants know that the politicians know that the civil servants know more that they.

Th.Abrahamsen, R.Christophersen, R.Nessheim. Day-to-Day Britain.


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